Analysis of proposals in the SDGs e-Inventory related to the themes of the Seventh Session of the Open Working Group on SDGs
By David Kroeker Maus and Jack Cornforth, Stakeholder Forum
The Sustainable Development Goals e-Inventory is an interactive online tool which enables stakeholders to outline their visions for new post-2015 global goals. This may be in the form of fully formed proposals, which include detailed targets and indicators, or simply principles and themes that should be applied to the goals. The e-Inventory also enables stakeholders to search existing proposals.
The UN General Assembly’s Open Working Group (OWG) on SDGs was mandated by Member States at Rio+20 to propose a set of sustainable development goals (SDGs) by September 2014. The Seventh Session of the OWG (6-10 January) will consider the thematic areas of: Sustainable cities and human settlements and sustainable transport; sustainable consumption and production (including chemicals and waste); and climate change and disaster risk reduction.
In order to inform the deliberations of the January OWG meeting, Stakeholder Forum has conducted an analysis of the proposals currently housed within the SDGs e-Inventory which relate to the thematic areas of the Seventh Session. For most of these topics, the SDG e-Inventory already contains a diverse range of proposals, from a wide variety of stakeholders from all global regions. It is hoped that this analysis will be a useful resource for the OWG members, as well other stakeholders involved in discussions on the Post-2015 Development Agenda, whether working specifically on the themes of this OWG meeting or otherwise.
Using the search function of the SDGs e-Inventory, relevant proposals were identified using the thematic labels applied to the proposals when they were uploaded. The proposals analysed in the Sustainable cities and human settlements and sustainable transport section were categorised with the themes ‘Cities and urbanisation’ and/or ‘Transportation’. Proposals analysed in the Sustainable Consumption and Production thematic area were categorised under a thematic area of the same name and/or ‘Sustainable resource management’. Proposals analysed in the final section, entitled Climate change and disaster risk reduction were categorised with the themes ‘Climate change’ and/or ‘Natural disasters’.
Frequency of OWG 7 thematic areas in the SDGs e-Inventory
The thematic areas being considered at OWG 7 vary quite significantly in terms of their popularity in e-Inventory proposals. Of the 55 e-Inventory thematic areas Climate change is the 12th most common, Natural disasters 20th, Cities and urbanisation 21st, Sustainable consumption and production 23rd, Sustainable resource management 25th, Transportation 38th, and Chemicals and waste 54th.
Analysis of proposals
Sustainable cities and human settlements and sustainable transport
The cross-UN Technical Support Team’s (TST) Issues Brief on cities notes that ‘Humanity is now half urban and expected to be nearly 70 per cent urban by 2050,’ indicating that for the SDGs to be globally relevant, the needs and interests of city-dwellers must be considered. Furthermore, ’60 per cent of the area expected to be urban by 2030 remains to be built,’ suggesting much scope for the SDGs to influence the urbanisation and infrastructure agenda in the coming years. The TST Issues Brief on Sustainable Transport emphasises that in both urban and rural contexts transport services and infrastructure are central for inclusive economic growth, social development and have the ability to help address a host of environmental issues.
There are essentially three types of proposals related to cities and transport in the e-Inventory:
- Proposals that call for a stand-alone goal on cities (e.g. ESCAP/ADB/UNDP; Governments of Colombia, Peru and UAE; and United Cities and Local Governments).
- Many of which include targets on sustainable transport (eg Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies [IASS]; and the Communitas Coalition);
- Proposals with a stand-alone goal on transport (e.g. ODI, The Campaign for Global Road Safety, and SloCaT); and
- Proposals containing general goals on environmental sustainability that include targets on urbanisation and/or transportation (e.g. Campaign for Peoples Goals for Sustainable Development [CPGSD], and African Youth Declaration on Post-2015 Agenda).
The geographical distribution of proposals which address these thematic areas is relatively consistent with that of other themes, with the majority coming from ‘International’ authors, along with a number of others emanating from Europe, Africa and Asia.
Sustainable cities and human settlement
Of the 31 proposals which selected ‘Cities and urbanisation’ as a thematic area (as displayed in Figure 1), 18 proposed specific goals, targets and indicators (GTIs). As noted above, many proposals include stand-alone goals with titles such as ‘Sustainable and Resilient Cities’ (Governments of Colombia, Peru, and United Arab Emirates) and ‘Sustainable Urbanisation’ (United Cities and Local Governments).
Seemingly the most comprehensive proposal for a stand-alone goal on cities in the e-Inventory so far comes from the Communitas Coalition, which puts forward a wide range of ‘zero draft’ targets and indicators (both quantitative and qualitative) on urbanisation and interrelated issues. These are broken down into several subcategories with a view to addressing all three dimensions of sustainable development, as well as to suggest some supporting policies and structures to help achieve these targets and monitor progress towards them. These are: Fundamental Urban Patterns; An Urban Life of Dignity for All within Planetary Boundaries; Enabling Policies; Territorial Dimension of other Sustainable Development Policies; and Governance & Accountability.
Figure 1: Share of proposals related to ‘Cities and urbanisation’ within the e-Inventory
The Communitas Coalition is one of a number of partners belonging to the Campaign for an Urban Sustainable Development Goal (#urbanSDG), a multi-stakeholder group coordinated by the Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN). While the #urbanSDG Coalition has not yet proposed targets and indicators for a goal on cities, the e-Inventory does contain a #urbanSDG proposal which outlines the reasons why a stand-alone urbanisation goal is a must for the new framework.
Owing perhaps to the complex nature of cities and the massive array of cross-cutting issues involved, there was no single area of focus that dominated the numerous other proposals related to the ‘Cities and urbanisation’ thematic area. Nevertheless, a few recurring issues emerged.
Several proposals dealt with the problem of waste management in growing cities. K. Savitha (India) deplores the lack of waste management strategies to keep pace with growing urbanisation and the ‘overflowing garbage cans.’ The UNCSD Major Group for Youth and Children propose a target to ‘Reduce urban waste production by 50%.’ Others (including ESCAP/ADB/UNDP, the African Youth Conference on Post-2015 Development Agenda and the French Foreign Ministry) suggest targets on waste management, but without any quantitative figures.
In a similar vein, several proposals also suggest targets for drainage systems, noting the cross-cutting benefits, such as preventing flooding and the spread of water-borne diseases. The 64th Annual DPI/NGO Conference Declaration proposed a target that ‘By 2030, urban areas with significant storm water pollution issues reduce impervious surface area by 30 per cent below 2012 levels.’ In a proposed stand-alone goal entitled ‘Liveable Cities,’ ESCAP/ADB/UNDP include a target on ‘Drainage and flood control systems which prioritize low-elevation coastal zones or vulnerable areas sensitive to surface run off.’ This link to resilience and natural disaster preparedness is also made by Communitas Coalition proposal. Finally, a few different authors proposed a range of targets related to urban density and green space. The UNCSD Major Group for Youth and Children proposed a target to ‘control urban sprawl,’ whilst a zero draft target from Communitas states that all city-regions should adopt policies aimed at ‘enhancing urban density and halving the current rate of conversion of additional greenfield land for urban development,’ thereby introducing an environmental element to this particular issue. Similarly, the goal on cities from IASS includes a target to ‘Maintain or increase the rate of green areas.’ ESCAP/ADB/UNDP’s target on ‘Habitat Density’, however, envisions ‘Sufficient living space available per person.’ Such targets need not be contradictory, but further discussion on the optimal balance between urban density, personal living space and green areas may be beneficial.
Of the 21 e-Inventory proposals tagged with the ‘Transportation’ thematic label (as shown in Figure 2), 14 contained specific GTIs. As noted above, there are a number of proposed stand-alone goals on transportation, many using similar language. The Campaign for Global Road Safety call for a stand-alone goal entitled ‘Safe and Sustainable Roads’ and the Overseas Development Institute (ODI) propose a goal to ‘Realise universal access to sustainable transport mobility.’
There are several distinct categories of transport-related GTIs within the e-Inventory. A significant number of proposals address transport safety: The Campaign for Global Road Safety proposes a target of ‘Reducing global road deaths by 50% from 2010 levels by 2030,’ with Communitas proposing a similar target under its goal on cities. The Partnership for Sustainable Low Carbon Transport (SloCaT) supports an even more ambitious target of cutting traffic-related deaths in half by 2025. ESCAP/ADP/UNDP propose a target with a gender dimension, on ‘Safe, affordable and convenient transport and mobility options for women and girls to help prevent and address gender-based violence in cities.’
A few proposals also address transport access. As noted above ODI proposes a stand-alone goal, entitled, ‘Realise universal access to sustainable transport mobility.’ At the target level, the French Foreign Ministry proposes the ‘Connection of all people through guaranteed service access’ to, among other things, transport.
But by far the most common theme among proposals is modal share of non-motorised or public transport. SloCaT propose the target: ‘Maintain 2010 share of personal trips by public and non-motorized transport for countries currently above 50%, and where this share is currently below 50% achieve at least a 10% gain by 2025.’ The 64th Annual DPI/NGO Conference Declaration proposes a target: ‘By 2030, city transport needs are or remain predominantly met by mass transport, walking and bicycling.’ The Environment Strategic Policy Committee of the Offaly County Council (Ireland) proposes a target of cycle routes in every town and village. The IASS proposal for a cities goal also suggests a target on limiting the use of private vehicles. In addition, the Communitas proposal for a goal on cities contains an ambitious target for the reduction of air pollution from passenger and freight transport, to reach peak global transport greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2020 at the latest, with an ultimate vision of achieving 40-60% reductions by 2050 compared to 2005 levels. This is just one of several examples of proposals which make a clear link between cities, transport and climate change (in relation to GHGs).
Figure 2: Share of proposals related to ‘Transportation’ within the e-Inventory
Comparison with official Post-2015 Development Agenda process inputs
Cities and human settlements
Both the High-Level Panel (HLP) and the United Nations Global Compact (UNGC) are relatively quiet about cities, only adding an urban dimension to targets on water and energy respectively. The SDSN, however proposes a stand-alone goal entitled, ‘Empower Inclusive, Productive and Resilient Cities,’ which contains three targets:
- End extreme urban poverty, expand employment and productivity, and raise living standards, especially in slums;
- Ensure universal access to a secure and affordable built environment and basic urban services, including housing; water, sanitation and waste management; low-carbon energy and transport; and mobile and broadband communication; and
- Ensure safe air and water quality for all, and integrate reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, efficient land and resource use, and climate and disaster resilience into investments and standards.
As all of these targets are echoed in at least one proposal by stakeholders in the e-Inventory, the SDSN goal appears to represent a comprehensive approach to addressing cities and interrelated thematic areas in the new goals framework. The lack of urban GTIs in two of the official process inputs is significantly at odds with the e-Inventory, where many stakeholders (including among others the Governments of Colombia, Peru and the UAE; ESCAP/ADP/UNDP; and United Cities and Local Governments) call for a stand-alone goal on cities and urbanisation. The HLP admits the importance of cities in the 21st century, going so far as to say, ‘Cities are where the battle for sustainable development will be won or lost.’ Given this sentiment, and the apparent stakeholder enthusiasm for a stand-alone urban goal, it seems cities deserve more attention in terms of GTIs than they have currently received in official post-2015 deliberations.
The SDSN, the HLP and the UNGC propose targets on access to transport, but with significant variance between them. The SDSN proposes a target to ensure ‘universal access to “low-carbon” transport.’ The UNGC, on the other hand, proposes to ‘Double the share of the population with easy and affordable access to public transportation systems. The HLP is more ambiguous still, simply proposing a target on universal access to transport, without any qualifiers as to what types of transport. The ambiguities and differences in targets among both stakeholders and official process inputs suggest a need to clarify the desired outcomes for transport access.
None of the official process inputs propose any targets for transport safety, suggesting a possible gap thus far between official deliberations and stakeholder concerns.
Sustainable consumption and production (including chemicals and waste)
The TST Issues Brief on sustainable consumption and production (SCP) highlights the centrality of this theme to the achievement of sustainable development, stating that ‘Changing consumption and production patterns is vital for poverty and hunger eradication, and also for protecting and managing the natural resource base and ecosystems, which underpin development.’
Of the 33 proposals in the e-Inventory tagged with the SCP thematic area (including Chemicals and waste – see Figure 3) only a relatively small number have put forward specific GTIs on this topic so far. A few proposals suggest stand-alone goals on SCP, such as those from SSA Social Justice Office and the 64th Annual DPI/NGO Conference Declaration. More common, however, has been for proposals to address this issue under other stand-alone goals such as those to: promote greener economic growth and thriving lives and livelihoods (United Nations Population Fund – UNFPA and Griggs et al); achieve environmental sustainability (Campaign for People’s Goals for Sustainable Development – CPGSD, and the French Foreign Ministry); deliver sustainable energy for all (Save the Children); and provide water and sanitation for all (Dr. Tom Mitchell – UK).
Prof. Mohan Munasinghe (Sri Lanka), however, has proposed an entire set of ‘Millennium Consumption Goals’ with possible target areas such as ‘healthier diets and obesity reduction,’ sustainable livelihoods’ and ‘reduced workweek and improved working conditions.’
It should be noted that many of the proposals that were categorised under the SCP thematic area addressed limiting greenhouse gas emissions, such as those from AFDEF and the Forum for Environmental Renewal Equity, a Sustainability Field Hearing Partner from Uganda, and the Beyond 2015, GCAP and IFP synthesis of post-2015 national deliberations in 10 Asian countries. This points to the important linkages between SCP and climate change. As climate change will also be considered at OWG 7, proposals that suggest emissions targets will be addressed in the section on climate change below.
As with most other thematic areas, the largest share of proposals came from ‘International’ authors. After that, however, the proportion is somewhat different than for other areas, with Asia and Europe accounting for the second and third highest share of proposals, respectively. Africa accounts for a noticeably smaller share (less than 10%) of proposals related to SCP than for the other thematic areas considered in this analysis. This may be because unsustainable consumption and production is perceived as a more pressing issue in Europe and the fast-growing Asian economies.
One of the most common trends emerging from proposals related to SCP was a focus on the sustainable use of natural resources. The CONCORD European Task Force propose a stand-alone goal entitled ‘Equitable access to natural resources’ and ESCAP/ADB/UNDP propose another entitled ‘Environmental responsibility and management of natural resources’ whilst Saferworld has put forward a slightly different stand-alone goal on respect for planetary boundaries which nonetheless maintains a focus on sustainable resource management and SCP. Mathieu Ouedraogo (Burkina Faso) proposes targets on ‘Existence of local mechanisms for the management of natural resources’ and ‘Growth in the rate of the adoption of practices for the sustainable management of natural resources.’
The Asia Pacific Forum on Women- Law and Development (APWLD) propose a target on SCP that has a social dimension: ‘Ensure resource extraction, such as water use, fishing, logging and mining, is according to the needs of communities and subject to sustainable management, while protecting the rights of fisherfolk, small farmholders, indigenous people and women.’ Similarly, proposals from stakeholders in Bolivia (UNITAS), Nepal (NAFAN), India (Vinoba Bhave) and the Participate initiative have all emphasised the need to improve access and rights to natural resources for local and marginalised communities in particular. A rights based approach to natural resource access and ownership is also put forward in a proposal from the World Federation of Engineering Organisations and Coraid, showing that this is not just an idea being espoused by stakeholders in the Global South.
There are also several proposals that address the need to reduce waste. The International Fertilizer Industry Association’s proposal includes targets on reducing post-harvest loss and food waste, whilst the French Foreign Ministry includes a target on ‘better management of waste (burial) and chemicals. Unnayan Onneshan proposes the indicator: ‘Tons of solid waste generated and solid waste recycled per capita.’ The only proposal related to the thematic area of SCP that specifically addressed chemicals was from the Monash Sustainability Institute, which suggests targets on ‘critical loads for man-made [sic] chemical compounds and toxic materials.’
Whilst most proposals focus on encouraging an overall shift in consumption and production patterns, some proposals do target particular unsustainable practices. Thus, the Government of Mongolia proposes a goal on responsible mining, with indicators such as ‘Ratio of remediation square and exploration square.’ The 64th Annual DPI/NGO Conference Declaration proposed a target that, by 2020: ‘Wasteful practices, such as planned obsolescence, are identified and eliminated.’ In addition, under a stand-alone goal on ‘Environmental responsibility and management of natural resources’, ESCAP/ADB/UNDP emphasise the need to change how goods and energy are produced.
Figure 3: Share of proposals related to SCP (inc. chemicals & waste) within the e-Inventory
Comparison with official Post-2015 Development Agenda process inputs
While none of the three official inputs propose a stand-alone goal on SCP, two of them do discuss the theme under another related goal. The SDSN report suggests a goal entitled ‘Achieve Development within Planetary Boundaries,’ which aims to ensure SCP patterns through improved reporting on a country’s contribution to planetary boundaries (beyond GDP) and stabilising populations through reducing fertility – two SCP-related topics only a very small number of e-inventory proposals discuss under this particular theme. The HLP report proposes a stand-alone goal entitled ‘Manage Natural Resource Assets Sustainably,’ but once again its targets are slightly different from many in the e-inventory that are concerned with natural resources and SCP. In general, the HLP targets focus on scientific phenomena (deforestation rates, genetic diversity, soil quality, etc.) whilst the proposals in the e-Inventory deal more with social implications of natural resource management (what might be called ‘political ecology’). A comprehensive framework could benefit from inclusion of both types of indicators in any goal or targets related to natural resources. The HLP and SDSN both include targets on food waste, with the HLP proposing ‘ Reduce postharvest loss and food waste by x%’ and the SDSN setting a target for sustainable food systems ‘with low food losses and waste.’ Nonetheless, the lack of defined numerical targets in either the e-Inventory or official process inputs suggest that although there is some agreement that food waste needs to be reduced, there is further work to be done to define reliable indicators for measuring progress in this area.
Climate change and disaster risk reduction
The TST Issues Brief on climate change and disaster risk notes that these interrelated thematic areas are ‘fundamental threats to sustainable development and the eradication of poverty’ which have the potential to reverse progress made in these areas over recent years. It notes that despite many aspects of these thematic areas being addressed under a separate United Nations process (UNFCCC), the SDGs provide a ‘unique opportunity’ to increase the coherence between these efforts and the broader but heavily interdependent sustainable development agenda, both now and for generations to come.
There are 51 proposals within the e-Inventory which selected ‘Climate change’ as a thematic area (as shown in Figure 4). Of these, 30 proposed specific GTIs, although very few could be considered stand-alone goals on climate change. For the most part, climate change is identified as a concern in broader environmental sustainability goals, with titles such as ‘Respect for Nature and the Planetary Boundaries’ (Civil Society Reflection Group on Global Development Perspectives) and ‘Low carbon development strategies pursued by all countries’ (CONCORD – European Task Force). There are also a few proposals which identify climate change as a cross-cutting issue in GTIs related to energy.
Although there is a good mix of proposals related to both climate change adaptation and mitigation within the e-Inventory, it is quite striking that all proposals related to climate change adaptation come from the Global South. Perhaps it is to be expected that the countries that currently and will continue to feel the worst effects of climate change would be more likely to include GTIs on climate change adaptation, which corresponds with the importance these countries (i.e. the G77 and China) have placed on the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities (CBDR) throughout the discussions on SDGs.
Regarding climate change mitigation, there is a slight variance in the ambitiousness of the targets proposed and the timescales for meeting them. The 64th Annual DPI/NGO Conference Declaration calls for ‘clear pathways towards climate sustainability that regulates the global temperature rise below 1.5 degree centigrade ’ by 2050.’ The CPGSD also sets a target of limiting global temperature rise to under 1.5 degree centigrade, but without any timescale. The French Foreign Ministry, on the other hand, only sets a target of limiting the average global temperature increase to 2C, also without any timescale. The proposal from the Monash Sustainability Institute (Australia) proposes a much more flexible target: ‘To ensure at least a 50% probability of staying within 2 degree centigrade warming, sustainability targets should aim for global greenhouse-gas emissions to peak in 2015-20, drop by 35% a year until 2030, and fall by 50-80% by 2050.’Regarding climate change mitigation, there is a slight variance in the ambitiousness of the targets proposed and the timescales for meeting them. The 64th Annual DPI/NGO Conference Declaration calls for ‘clear pathways towards climate sustainability that regulates the global temperature rise below 1.5 degree centigrade ’ by 2050.’ The CPGSD also sets a target of limiting global temperature rise to under 1.5 degree centigrade, but without any timescale. The French Foreign Ministry, on the other hand, only sets a target of limiting the average global temperature increase to 2 degree centigrade, also without any timescale. The proposal from the Monash Sustainability Institute (Australia) proposes a much more flexible target: ‘To ensure at least a 50% probability of staying within 2 degree centigrade warming, sustainability targets should aim for global greenhouse-gas emissions to peak in 2015-20, drop by 35% a year until 2030, and fall by 50-80% by 2050.’
Regarding adaptation, the Asian Regional Synthesis of the Civil Society Demands for the Post 2015 Agenda proposed that ‘Developed countries should commit to obligatory, addtional, non-debt creating pulic finance to cover the full cost of adaptations to climate change.’ The Asia-Pacific Forum on Women – Law and Development make a similar proposal, with climate finance contributed on the basis of historical responsibility – a clear nod to the principle of CBDR. The African Youth Conference on the Post-2015 Development Agenda proposed targets for ‘Climate change responsive policies,’ arguing that ‘Climate research by governments and civil societies should be enhanced to develop adaptation capacity,’ suggesting a link between climate change and means of implementation – a thematic area discussed at the previous OWG meeting.
Figure 4: Share of proposals related to ‘Climate change’ within the e-Inventory
There are 31 proposals within the e-Inventory which selected ‘Natural Disasters’ as a thematic area (as shown in Figure 5). Of these, 18 propose specific GTIs, and many of these are stand-alone goals, as noted below. Although for most thematic areas, the largest share of proposals come from authors whose geographic location is listed as ‘International’, for disasters, Asia accounts for approximately the same number of unique submissions.
The level of sophistication in proposals related to disasters is noteworthy: most proposals distinguish between disaster preparedness and disaster risk reduction, with many proposing separate GTIs for each. A proposal by A.K.M. Shahidul Islam, a Sustainability Field Hearing Partner from Bangladesh goes so far as to distinguish targets for Disaster Risk Reduction, Disaster Preparedness, Disaster Prevention, Disaster Response and Disaster Rehabilitation. Additionally, only two proposals use the phrase ‘Natural disasters’, suggesting a recognition of the role of human agency in exacerbating natural hazards and ‘disasters’.
The majority of proposals on this thematic area which contain GTIs propose stand-alone goals related to disaster preparedness/risk reduction. Many proposals area situated within a resilience framework, such as the International Poverty Reduction Center in China, whose stand-alone goal is simply titled ‘Resilience to disaster.’ It is interesting that only a few proposals address disaster preparedness/risk reduction in tandem with climate change adaptation/mitigation (such as AUC/UNECA/AfDB/UNDP and Cordaid [Netherlands]).
Regarding disaster preparedness, the UNCSD Major Group for Youth and Children propose a stand-alone goal (‘Improve disaster risk preparedness with a particular focus on youth’) with targets such as ‘20% increase in the number of trained youth volunteers registered under Disaster Response Task Forces.’ Mathieu Ouedraogo (Burkina Faso) proposes a stand-alone goal entitled ‘Reinforcing community resilience to disasters and ability to adapt to climate change’ with a target for functioning early warning systems. Regarding disaster risk reduction, the French Foreign Ministry propose a target to: ‘Develop and enforce territorial development plans governing building in flood-risk areas, coastal areas subject to erosion, and other areas vulnerable to climate risks.’ Mathieu Ouedraogo also proposes a target for ‘infrastructure for the reduction and mitigation of disaster risks.’
Similarly, there are several proposed process GTIs focused on mainstreaming disaster preparedness into development planning. For example, the stand-alone goal on disaster risk reduction proposed by ESCAP/ADB/UNDP argues that ‘any new development agenda should help mainstream disaster risk reduction in national budgets and development programmes.’ Similarly, Save the Children’s stand-alone goal on resilience to disasters features the target: ‘All nations to develop a national disaster risk reduction and resilience plan by 2020.’ The Communitas Coalition also includes specific process-related targets on both disaster preparedness and risk reduction under its stand-alone goal on cities.
Figure 5: Share of proposals related to ‘Natural disasters’ within the e-Inventory
Comparison with official Post-2015 Development Agenda process inputs
Unlike several stakeholder proposals, most of the official process inputs shy away from overall carbon emissions targets – something they likely consider better left to the separate UNFCCC process. Nonetheless the SDSN report proposes targets on pricing of greenhouse gas emissions and on non-energy related emissions, whilst UNGC report includes a target on reversing greenhouse gas emissions from farming and livestock production.
Similarly, none of the official process inputs include any GTIs on climate change adaptation. It is possible that there has so far been a desire to avoid advocating for commitments to fund climate adaptation activities under a separate framework to the UNFCCC. In any case, it appears from the submissions in the e-Inventory that climate change adaptation cannot be ignored in the SDGs. Moreover, there seems to be the need for further consideration of how the SDGs interact and are made compatible with the targets agreed through the UNFCCC process.
Unlike many proposals housed within the e-Inventory, no official process inputs contain a stand-alone goal on disasters. Nevertheless the report of the SDSN includes targets on disaster resilience under its goals on agriculture and cities. The HLP report also includes a disaster resilience target, however this is under its end poverty goal: ‘Build resilience and reduce deaths from natural disasters by x2.’
The lack of GTIs on disasters is understandable, as ‘development’ and ‘disaster response/management’ are often seen as separate spheres. But the heightened vulnerability of ‘developing’ countries to disasters, and the inclusion of GTIs on this theme by so many stakeholders suggests the need for further consideration on where disaster-related GTIs could fit within the post-2015 goals framework.
Stakeholder Forum will be publishing a briefing paper with an analysis of proposals in the SDGs e-Inventory related to the themes of each of the remaining Open Working Group meeting (OWG 8, Feb 2014).
Stakeholder Forum will also be undertaking a comprehensive analysis of all proposals housed within the e-Inventory to coincide with the second Intersessional Meeting between Major Groups and other stakeholders and the Open Working Group which is set to take place towards the end of the OWG’s input phase of work in February 2014.
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