GPA BLUE DIAMONDS ONLINE – MAINSTREAMING
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An introduction to mainstreaming marine & coastal ecosystems
By Razi Latif,UNEP, Marine & Coastal Ecosystems Branch Division of Environmental Policy & Implementation
ENVIRONMENT MAINSTREAMING is, “The informed inclusion of relevant environmental concerns into the decisions of institutions that drive national, local and sectoral development policy, rules, plans, investment and action”.
Efforts to integrate policies and practices for environmental sustainability into the mainstream of development practice can help developing countries achieve their development goals. However, opportunities to turn environmental mainstreaming into a driver for positive change are often overlooked when environment is not considered during the development planning process.
At first glance the above definition looks relatively straightforward, but at the same time there exists a lot of confusion about what mainstreaming actually is. Therefore, it is worth starting by dispelling a few myths:
Environmental mainstreaming is simply ‘environmental management’
Environmental management is an end result. Environmental mainstreaming is a wider and deeper process which aims to improve human well being while recognising that governance and political economy are key ‘make or break’ factors. In order to effectively mainstream, environment practitioners must place human well-being at the centre of their agenda and work with those parts of government and civil society that they have not traditionally engaged with.
Environment mainstreaming is an old concept that has been given a new name
In fact mainstreaming is a new way of doing business which takes into account the diversity of government and the importance of the decision making processes. It has emerged from a recognition that while environment practitioners have made short term gains, they have not been very successful at permanently changing decision making cultures or practices.
Environment mainstreaming is another way of protecting precious habitats and biodiversity
Mainstreaming is not just about increasing budgets for conservation. It’s a deeper and longer term process with the aim of institutional and behavioural change. Mainstreaming helps to value the contribution of habitats and biodiversity in the context of people and their livelihoods as well as wider development goals.
Mainstreaming is about putting green words into national plans
Mainstreaming recognises that health, well-being and income opportunities are central in the development goals of all nations. Given that ecosystems provide many of the services that underpin development, mainstreaming involves putting environmental sustainability at the centre of a nation’s laws, policies, systems and institutions.
Environment mainstreaming does target development policies and plans, but its also recognises the need for building capacity for implementation. Ultimately mainstreaming is about highlighting the importance of the environment for development, and then working with decision-makers to help bring about quicker and better sustainable development.
The significance of marine and coastal ecosystems
As much as 80% of pollution in coastal waters and the deep oceans originates from land-based activities which includes nutrients, sediments and chemicals, with often far reaching effects. These pollutants can harm or even destroy marine and coastal habitats that support livelihoods, human health, economic growth, biodiversity, shoreline protection, and other cultural and spiritual benefits. The effects of coastal degradation and a loss of these services are felt inland and often a long way from the coast. For example fisheries and fish products provide direct employment to 38 million people worldwide and indirectly to 162 million. Coastal tourism is the fastest growing sector of global tourism providing significant employment and income – benefits from the coral reefs of the Indian Ocean amount to over US$4 million a year and reef-based tourism in the Florida Keys (USA) alone generates over $1.2 billion annually.
What actions make up ‘Mainstreaming’?
Broadly speaking, environmental mainstreaming involves:
Finding entry points to policy and planning process where environmental concerns are missing and need to be integrated.
Developing evidence based studies or economic analyses which highlight the contribution of the environment to development.
Engaging in policy & planning processes where the collected evidence is used as a rationale and tool for the inclusion of
Developing simple communication messages targeting key policy and decision-makers (advocacy).
Working with partners to implement the environmental components of the new policies and plans.
The above list may look prescriptive, but in fact mainstreaming is an evolving process and is tailored to the specific needs of each country or jurisdiction. Experience from countries suggests that more demand for environmental integration is coming from non-environmentalists. In future mainstreaming could be less about the advocacy and more about helping countries make the right trade-offs and choices that will put them on a quicker path to sustainable development.
What are the results of mainstreaming?
As well as a better understanding of how revenue and cost streams work in the management of natural resources and ecosystems, the real results of mainstreaming should been seen in people’s pockets and physical on-the-ground improvements. Short term results can take the form of better informed decision-making, strengthened institutions, simplified legal frameworks, or increased budgets. But the longer term results should be ‘win-win-win’: the environment and natural resources are no longer in decline or have improved coupled with lower levels of poverty and quicker economic growth.
Specific outcomes of mainstreaming can include:
Increased awareness among decision makers of the contribution of natural resources to their economy
Households and industries switching to more renewable sources of energy
Local communities increasing their income through
Farmers conserving soils after government has quantified the risks of soil erosion on food security
Quality of drinking water improved following an impact study on waterborne diseases (cost of disease on the local economy versus
costs of ensuring potable water)
In summary, environment mainstreaming is a process with the goal of improving human well-being within the wider development context. It involves deliberate and targeted reforms which lead to fundamental changes in behaviour and development patterns which are sustainable from one generation to the next.
In this issue of Blue Diamonds
In this issue of Blue Diamonds we will further explore the practicalities of mainstreaming, considering case study examples and success stories from Australia’s northern coastline to the Caribbean, the Mediterranean and Malawi. Firstly, David Osborne, Coordinator, Ecosystem Management Programme, UNEP, will consider key elements of mainstreaming in the context of Australia’s biodiversity rich Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, highlighting key partnerships and lessons learnt in the implementation of the GPA at local scales.
‘Mainstreaming poverty-environment linkages in Malawi’ will subsequently be explored in an article by Themba Kalua, Poverty and Environment Initiative (PEI) Africa Team, based at UNEP in Nairobi. This article will highlight how an economic analysis of the cost of sustainable or unsustainable natural resource management in Malawi led to a national development plan mainstreaming poverty and environmental interlinkages.
An article by Vincent Sweeny GEF-IWCAM Regional Project Coordinator, UNEP, will then demonstrate how introducing stakeholders to concepts from the Integrating Watershed and Coastal Area Management (IWCAM) Project in the Small Island Development States (SIDS) of the Caribbean can contribute to the mainstreaming of responses to land-based pollution.
Lastly, the UNEP- Mediterranean Action Plan, Regional Activity Centre (PAP/RAC) office will showcase three case studies of mainstreaming success across the Mediterranean region, highlighting programmatic achievements from Algeria, Morocco and Slovenia.
[1 & 3] Dalal-Clayton B. and S. Bass. 2009, ‘The challenges of environmental mainstreaming: experience of integrating environment into development institutions and decisions’. IIED, London.
 S. Bass, 2010, ‘New routes for mainstreaming’, IIED, London.
Some of the keys to mainstreaming
A look into the implementation of the GPA at a local scale highlights some of the key elements to mainstreaming in
the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Australia, writes David Osborne, Coordinator, Ecosystem Management Programme, UNEP.
The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park is one of the crown jewels of Australia’s natural history and biodiversity. It covers almost 350,000 square kilometres, an area bigger than the British Isles and contributes to the Australian economy in the order of US$5 to 6 billion a year.
The impacts of land based sources of pollution
Since the 1970’s the Australian Government has invested heavily to ensure this bastion of natural capital is passed to future generations in as pristine a state as possible, while not limiting reasonable use of the park. However it wasn’t until the late 1990’s that efforts started to focus on the impacts that diffuse land-based activities were having on the health of the reef.
Extensive research suggested that the reef was suffering as a result of land-based sources of pollution, including, amongst other things, fertilisers and pesticides. The expansion and intensification of rural agriculture, combined with the degradation of coastal habitat, such as floodplains and wetlands, significantly increased pollution entering the coastal waters of the marine park. This has had a detrimental effect on the Reef and adjacent coastal ecosystems, such has estuaries, sea grass beds and mangroves.
The implementation of the GPA at local scales
In 2003 a Reef Water Quality Protection Plan (ReefPlan) was introduced by the State (Queensland) and Australian government in an attempt to address the threats posed by diffuse pollution sources. It represented the direct implementation of the GPA at local scales. The innovative idea behind ReefPlan was that it saw the sustainable growth of agricultural industries as an integral and vital element to the future well being of the Great Barrier Reef – i.e., what’s good for agricultural business must also be good for the marine environment.
During the period 2005 to 2008 I had the privilege to directly participate in the implementation of ReefPlan, first as Director, Water Quality, with the Australian Government’s Department of the Environment and Water Resources, and then as Director, Community Partnerships, with the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.
Initiatives we implemented ranged from mapping and restoring coastal wetlands, to education and capacity building initiatives in collaboration with industry bodies and community organisations. Considerable funds were also provided for regional natural resource management bodies to develop Water Quality Improvement Plans (WQIP) specific to the circumstances and needs of their respective regions. These plans outlined Environmental Quality Objectives (EQOs) for specific coastal estuaries and near-shore areas, and spelled out specific actions to ensure the EQOs are achieved.
New partnerships, real progress and lessons learnt
These initiatives, matched with strong leadership from the State and Australian Governments, and a rigorous reporting framework allowing for accountability and public scrutiny, ensured that real progress was made. New partnerships were developed between government, industry and civil society and considerable momentum was generated.
In 2009 a revised programme building on the lessons learned during the previous five years was adopted and backed by increased state and federal funding. The short term goal of the new ReefPlan is to halt and reverse the decline in water quality entering the reef by 2013. The longer term goal is to ensure that by 2020 the quality of the water entering the reef from adjacent catchments has no detrimental impact on the health and resilience of the reef. Targets include:
50% reduction in Nitrogen, Phosphorous and pesticide loads by 2013.
50% late dry season ground cover on dry tropical grazing ground by 2013 (this relates to making sure ground cover exists to reduce
soil and nutrient run off into rivers during heavy rains).
80% of landowners in the sugarcane, horticulture, dairy, cotton and grains sectors will have adopted improved soil, nutrient
and chemical management practices by 2013.
50% of landowners in the grazing sector will have adopted improved pasture and riparian management practices by 2013.
20% reduction in sediment load by 2030.
Smaller farming operations are asked to maintain records and assess risks, for example from herbicide run-off. Larger producers are asked to adopt environmental risk management action plans. Regulations compliment these measures and provide better protection for up to 720,000 hectares of riparian vegetation and wetlands. Science also plays its part by informing the process.
The key to mainstreaming the ReefPlan, and through it the GPA, over the long term has been sustained government leadership and financial support, strong community and industry involvement, and finding solutions that generate benefits for the various stakeholders. Among these has been the ability for agricultural producers to sustainably manage their land and benefit from real, not imagined, efficiencies.
From Australia’s experience, key messages include:
Publicising a threat to an iconic resource can help achieve the critical political and institutional reform required to tackle the issues threatening that very resource.
Incorporating a transparent and rigorous reporting framework ensures that investments are targeted at activities that generate real results and build momentum.
Involve industry and community organisations in generating solutions and implementing reforms.
National and local government, as well as regional natural resource management bodies, worked together to create the right enabling environment.
Voluntary codes should be supported with fiscal investment and where necessary underpinned by incentives, regulatory and enforcement measures.
Targets must be set.
Implementation must be informed by best available science.
Mainstreaming poverty-environment linkages in Malawi
The Government of Malawi is currently implementing the UNDP-UNEP Poverty and Environment Initiative (PEI) which aims to mainstream poverty-environment linkages in the national development planning processes, writes Mr Themba Kalua, PEI Africa Team based at UNEP in Nairobi.
The Poverty and Environment Initiative (PEI) Malawi is housed in the Ministry of Development Planning and Cooperation (MDPC) which is responsible for coordinating national development planning processes. PEI implementing partners are: Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security, the Office of the President and Cabinet, Department of Environmental Affairs, Department of Energy, Forestry Department and Ministry of Local Government.
Economic analysis of resource management
One of the key initial activities for PEI Malawi was to conduct an economic analysis of the cost of sustainable or unsustainable natural resource management in Malawi. The analysis was aimed at generating information on the cost of unsustainable natural resources and determining the contribution of natural resources to the economy of the country thereby highlighting the relevance for environment mainstreaming within the context of poverty reduction and economic development. The economic analysis revealed that Malawi loses MK 26.6 billion (US$191 million) due to unsustainable natural resource use. This amount represents 5.3% of the GDP and is higher than the budgetary allocation to most sectors including health and education.
The findings of the economic analysis initiated much debate around how sustainable natural resources management can contribute to the economy and help reduce poverty. The findings of the study were fed into a national development plan known as the Malawi Growth and Development Strategy. A knock on effect of the economic analysis is that now several of PEI’s key stakeholders also make efforts to mainstream poverty-environment linkages in their work:
1.The Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security is embarking on a study on fertilizer efficiency use and linking it with conservation
agriculture. The study will come up with recommendations on improving fertilizer efficiency hence reducing farmer’s burden on the
amount of money they spend on buying fertilizer.
2.The Office of the President and Cabinet is producing guidelines on how to incorporate sustainable natural resources
management in the executive decision making.
3.The Department of Environmental Affairs has produced a State of the Environment and Outlook Report which has a
strong poverty focus.
4.The Forestry Department is reviewing the Forestry Policy to ensure that poverty-environment linkages are mainstreamed
5.The Ministry of Finance is producing Budget Guidelines that incorporate sustainable natural resources management
6.Ministry of Local Government is producing Decentralized Environmental Management Manual which mainstreams
sustainable natural resources management and this will be used in developing district development plans
A cross-sector partnership
One of the key achievements of the PEI Malawi programme is that it has brought development practitioners from planning and finance closer to natural resource management experts from the sector ministries. This helps to ensure that the contribution of natural resources to poverty reduction efforts is better understood and that economic growth is not undermined by the mismanagement of natural resources.
Through the development of coastal zone management policies and actions, Saint Lucia has been successful in promoting marine & coastal environmental protection through key sectors within Saint Lucia’s economy, mainly through a strong coordination function with these key sectors. Saint Lucia is now developing innovative ideas for financing improved coastal zone management. Challenges however remain……
Saint Lucia adopted the Global Programme of Action in November 1995. Saint Lucia’s ‘Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Policy, Guidelines and Selected Projects’ were approved and adopted by the Cabinet of Ministers in 2004. The country’s Coastal Zone Management Strategy seeks to improve the management of the island’s coastal and marine resources to ensure that economic growth is balanced with the sound management and use of coastal and marine resources. The Strategy recognizes that the management of the coastal and marine resources of the island is complex and can only occur through inter-agency collaborative approaches that integrate the management of the coastal zone into all other sector-based management programmes. A Strategy and Action Plan for Integrated CZM is being developed to implement St Lucia’s CZM Policy.
Saint Lucia is a party to the Cartagena Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean Region. At a regional level, in January 2008, Saint Lucia acceded to the Land-Based Sources of Marine Pollution (LBS) Protocol. The LBS Protocol seeks to respond to the protection of the marine environment from land-based point and non-point sources of marine pollution.
At the vanguard of Saint Lucia’s ICZM Action Plan is the island’s Coastal Zone Management Unit. This Unit has established inter-sectoral committees which coordinate and integrate the island’s institutional framework for environmental management. A good result of this collaborative work has been the development of Voluntary Recreational Water Quality Standards which are cross-sectoral in nature and have been supported by different sectors (agricultural, light industry, tourism).
On a broader note, the Coastal Zone Management Unit is driving an attempt to mainstream coastal and marine issues into the country’s wider development planning process. Saint Lucia’s ICZM programme is not restricted to one agency but is instead diffused into the work programmes of a number of agencies such as the Ministry of Communications and Works, the Ministry of Physical Development and the Department of Fisheries. The Coastal Zone Management Unit acts as a coordinating arm responsible for integrating the work programmes of key agencies within Saint Lucia’s coastal and marine protection mandates. A result of this work is evidenced by a shift in how the work programmes of these other line agencies are now being defined with marine/coastal concerns in mind.
One interesting area of work is in the development of innovative financing mechanisms for ICZM. The development of these mechanisms has in a large part been ‘devolved’ to specific line ministries. For example: Improved licensing and registration by the Department of Fisheries for marine users; The introduction of fines by various agencies; The development of user fees in the Soufriere Marine Management Area for yachts and SCUBA divers; and the introduction of an Environmental Levy which supports Saint Lucia’s Solid Waste Management Authority. The ICZM Strategy also sets out options for Saint Lucia to generate revenue for environment financing such as the establishment of trust funds, levies and surcharges on certain goods and services.
UNEP has supported these processes in Saint Lucia through the publication of guidelines to assist countries to produce their own ICZM policies and plans. UNEP also supported Saint Lucia in monitoring marine pollution and lately, in the development of St Lucia’s National Programme of Action for the protection of the marine environment from land based activities.
- The need to incorporate training and participation into public awareness activities as a foundation for changing attitudes. For example, policy exercises should comprise a clear policy statement as well as a strategy and action plan. These plans should include specific actions to be carried out in the short, medium and long term and should clearly detail how these actions are to be implemented.
- It is frequently expected that issues such as inadequate sewage treatment should be addressed by Government agencies. However, establishing systems which involve all interest groups would be more effective.
- There is a strong need to integrate implementation of the GPA with other priority programme areas such as health, poverty reduction and food security.
- The need for new low maintenance technologies to address sewage treatment.
One of the key challenges is increasing government budgetary allocations for environment programmes. There are a number of reasons behind this: Firstly, the Ministry of Finance is not represented on the main inter-sectoral committee set up to implement the ICZM Strategy. The non-inclusion of the Ministry of Finance is recognised as an oversight as the support of this Ministry is critical to the mainstreaming process. So the challenge is to get the Ministry of Finance engaged.
The Coastal Zone Management Unit, in cooperation with the other agencies is working towards placing coastal and marine issues higher on the agenda of the Ministry of Finance. The approach is to let other agencies incorporate marine and coastal issues into their own work programme, not as environmental issues, but instead as national development and human health-related issues. As such, the Coastal Zone Management Unit is working very closely with the Ministries of National Development, Health, Physical Development and Tourism and the National Emergency Management Office to achieve this goal.
Environment programmes however continue to be under-funded. A challenge has been to find convincing arguments to help fund environmental programmes since a perception persists that these activities don’t generate revenue, or contribute to human development (where the emphasis is more on education, health, agriculture, tourism). In light of this, it is evident that the link between a healthy and productive environment and a healthy and a productive population has not been successfully established within key decision makers within government.
There are two other issues which challenge the mainstreaming process: Environmental Departments in Saint Lucia have in the past been successful in mobilising funds from donors and funding agencies to implement a number of projects. Therefore, the perception of the Ministry of Finance is that there is no need to make any budgetary allocations for the environment.
An integrated, coordinated and collective effort is vital to the successful implementation of the Saint Lucia’s ICZM Strategy and wider regional/international commitments like the LBS Protocol. So the second issue is trying to achieve a ‘Collective Effort’: Recognizing that key government agencies are an indispensable component of the ICZM, a champion is required to ensure coordination and integration of agencies towards the necessary annual budgetary requests/allocations to support ICZM interventions. Getting this collective approach, to make sure all the activities of the jigsaw are ‘budgeted for’ is a big coordination task and requires a great deal of time and resources from the Coastal Zone Management Unit.
 One of the three Protocols under the Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment in the
Wider Caribbean Region (Cartagena Convention) which entered into force in 1986.
Mainstreaming success stories: Algeria, Morocco and Slovenia
UNEP- Mediterranean Action Plan, Priority Actions Programme Regional Activity Centre (PAP/RAC) presents success stories in mainstreaming from Algeria to Morocco and Slovenia.
All photographs by Marko Prem
From initiatives launched by the Algerian Ministry of Physical Planning and Environment over the past twenty years, the process of integrated coastal zone management has emerged as the most efficient solution to the problems of fragile yet valuable coastal resources, as well as the best response to the socio-economic needs of the population who live and depend on them.
To successfully design and implement a Costal Area Management Programme (CAMP) for the coastal zone of the densely populated region of Algiers and its neighbouring costal wilayas, the Algerian Government turned to the Mediterranean Action Plan (MAP) to help design and implement its strategy. The project, jointly financed by the national government and MAP, was implemented from 2002-2006 and led by the Priority Actions Programme Regional Activity Centre (PAP/RAC) on behalf of MAP.
The Algerian CAMP was the first process of integrated coastal management to be implemented in the country. Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) was a novel yet complex exercise which required considerable commitment from all stakeholder groups. The overall success of CAMP can be measured by the fact that the process is likely to be replicated along the rest of the Algerian coastline. CAMP’s success can be seen as a direct result of the collaboration between the PAP/RAC and local government agencies, complimented by international expertise with knowledge and experience drawn from local communities. This approach has enabled Algeria to successfully address its most urgent issues such as; control of urbanisation, physical alteration of the coast; combating pollution from sanitation and solid waste; integrated management of water resources; and the protection of vulnerable natural and cultural sites.
With the methodologies and tools developed by MAP, The CAMP project has achieved its principal objective of promoting sustainable development. More specifically, this has involved: ranking existing environmental problems; identifying causes and measures/actions to be taken; looking at costs and potential sources of financing; conducting studies, implementing tools and subsequent recommendations.
The CAMP project focused on numerous detailed objectives and from these three distinct types of actions were proposed; concrete field work (land-use management and construction); conservation measures relating to the application and improvement of legislation; and, finally capacity building (such as education and training) necessary to effectively implement the ICZM process.
The post-CAMP phase aims to give the project an operational and sustainable character, as it focuses on implementing the actions identified by CAMP and on creating enabling conditions for continuing the ICZM process. For example, numerous complementary programmes concerning coastal protection and enhancement in the value of almost US$ 7 million have been implemented since 2005.
At present, the Algerian ICZM process enjoys strong support from government policies at both the local and national levels with the state perceiving the sustainable development of the coastal zones to be a good guarantee of socio-economic progress and better quality of life. Given its involvement, the Algerian Ministry of Physical Planning and Environment has been a leading authority on this approach and is a key stakeholder in marine mainstreaming initiatives, such as the recently signed ICZM Protocol to the Barcelona Convention and the future Mediterranean Strategy for ICZM.
Subsequent Initiatives and Concrete Results:
Inspired by the CAMP project, the Ministry of Physical Planning and Environment has prepared other ‘CAMPs’ for the zones of Annaba and Oran. In addition, a decree has since been adopted which legislates for the replication of this type of project in all the coastal wilayas of Algeria, seeing a budget of 28 million DA (US$390,000) allocated for the preparation of the study, and further 5.7 billion DA (US$792m) for the implementation of the projects.
A specialised coastal agency: Commissariat National au Littoral (CNL), was established in 2004 to monitor coastal protection and integrate the planning and management of such initiatives. CNL reports to the Ministry of Physical Planning and Environment,, the wilayas through their environment directorates, and to the regional environment inspectorates.
The physical borders of the coastal zone were defined to enable the identification of a 100m set back zone and establishing limits for development.
An important cleanup programme was launched to secure a 100% rate of wastewater treatment by 2014. In 2007, 56 treatment plants were in operation allowing for the treatment of 270 million m3 per year, and by 2009 treatment capacity had increased to 600 million m3 per year by the addition of 39 new treatment plants. A number of coastal water quality monitoring and analysis programmes have been set up, as well as a solid waste management systems including the elimination of illegal dumping sites, waste sorting and recycling facilities. A well funded municipal waste management programme has also been set up, with an investment of 38 billion DA (US$500m).
In cooperation with the French Global Environment Facility (Fonds français pour l’environnement mondial – FFEM), three protected marine areas are in the process of creation: Chenoua-Kouali (10,000 ha), Habibas islands (40 ha) and Rachgoune (20 ha). Two other areas – Taza (3,807 ha) and El Kala (80,000 ha) are also being created in collaboration with the European Commission (EC) and World Wildlife Fund (WWF). Also, within the implementation of the CAMP projects in Algiers, Oran and Annaba, an additional 10 marine areas are being examined with a view to delimitation, protection and management.
A sustainable tourism development strategy has been proposed for the wilaya of Tipaza with EC-LIFE project funding. A water resources planning and management project in the Réghaïa marine area is also set to begin receiving support from the Global Environment Facility (GEF).
The Ministry of Physical Planning and Environment is putting emphasis on education, training and awareness raising on the importance of Algeria’s natural and cultural environment. A National Institute for Environmental Training has been established to promote environmental issues, including information, education and warning systems. Also, three marine museums are to be established, in Annaba, Oran and Tipasa.
In recognition of his personal involvement with the environmental issues and more specifically coastal zone management, the Algerian Environment Minister received a nominated for “Ambassador of the Coast” which recognises contributions to improving coastal management .
Special attention is being given to children’s environmental education. ‘Coast Day’ celebrations promoted by PAP/RAC, Green Theatres and Green Clubs are organised for small children, and are considered to be one of the most effective vectors of communicating environmental information to a younger audience.
Finally, Algeria has proposed the establishment of a Mediterranean Coastal Observatory to MAP, and has offered premises to host it. This proposal is complimentary and will enhance the provisions of Algeria’s ICZM Protocol.
 Administrative region of Algeria
 Algerian Dinar : 1 US$ = 72.74 DA (UN exchange rate as of February 2011)
The success of a coastal management initiative has contributed greatly to changing the attitudes of those responsible for coastal zone planning and management. Two small projects in the Central Rif Region in Morocco demonstrated that true ‘integrated management’ at a local level does work provided the environment is right and there is sufficient support.
For the past three years, the central Rif region on Morocco’s Mediteranain coast has hosted two important projects collaboratively implemented by the Moroccan State Secretariat for Water Resources and the Environment (SEEE) and the Mediterranean Action Plan (MAP). Both projects, MAP’s Coastal Area Management Programme (CAMP), and the “Destinations” project of the European Commission (EC) were completed this year. Each shared a common objective: to contribute to the socio-economic development of that area while conserving coastal resources. The specific tasks were to assess the natural and cultural resources of the area and to recommend management measures and ways of achieving balanced and sustainable development, primarily through tourism.
The two ‘pilot’ projects demonstrated the practical application of integrated coastal zone management (ICZM). The objective was to apply and test an ICZM approach under real conditions, involving all stakeholders and helping them to familiarise themselves with the fundamental principles of ICZM. The two project jointly conducted with local communities, were implemented to test, at a very small scale, processes of shared-responsibility with a strong emphasis on stakeholder participation. These exercises also served to test new practices at the community level, which have in turn stimulated decision-makers to turn to new forms of governance for the management of these areas (see box below).
The lessons learned can be used as a guide for other examples of ICZM along national coast, as well as in the rest of the region. The results achieved can help improve the implementation of ICZM in terms of efficiency, performance and progress of governance arrangements.
The recommendations made by the CAMP team addressed to the decision-makers and managers of the Moroccan coastal zones, as well as the achievements of the two projects are a direct translation – in operational terms – of the key factors of ICZM. Although it is too early to assess all the impacts this project will have on Moroccan coastal policies, it is already evident that it will help to:
Spread the spirit of collective endeavour to other regions at each decision-making level;
Adopt new policy instruments in support of the changes in coastal zone management methods, especially those that reflect the terms of the ICZM Protocol signed in January 2008, and of the National Charter on Environment and Sustainable Development.
Establish a permanent body to coordinate public policies relating to coastal zone management. Functions could include awareness raising, training and participation of all stakeholders in coastal management.
The Souani project – Sfiha beach in Al Hoceima Bay…
Purpose: Address impacts of the Souani tourist project on the dunes and the beach environment and actively involve civil society
Major achievements: A Revision of the layout plan of the tourism project, with respect to the ICZM recommendations from CAMP on construction setback, protection and rehabilitation of the Al Mazamma archaeological site, and the protection of water, forest and fishery resources of the Al Hoceima Bay.
How was it achieved? A number of activities were performed jointly by the CAMP and the EC funded ‘Destinations’ team, such as:
– Workshops on ICZM, sustainability assessment, future scenarios, in order to provide the latest information to the civil society actors involved.
-Training was organised for moderators/facilitators who served as communication relays for the promotion of ICZM principles within the local population (in the Amazigh language).
– Preparation, by the CAMP and “Destinations” project experts, of an explanatory note on the potential environmental and socio-economic sustainability impacts of the Souani project on the coast of the Al Hoceima bay. This note was submitted to all stakeholders and involved authorities.
– Preparation, by the local NGOs, of a report outlining their concerns on the impact the Souani project has had on the region. The document also contained policy recommendations, which were the first of their kind in Morocco and was presented to all stakeholders, as well as both local and national media outlets.
– Intervention from the inter-ministerial committee in charge of evaluating impact studies, explaining, in scientific terms, the risks that had not been taken into consideration in the first version of the project. The committee expressed reservations about the environmental acceptability of the project which obliged the developer to revise its plan of implementation, increasing the coefficient of land occupation, reducing the number of envisaged swimming pools, moving the line of construction further inland, and guaranteeing the preservation of the Al Mazamma archaeological site.
In conclusion: the coincidence of the CAMP ICZM pilot project with the launching of the Souani tourist project represented an excellent opportunity to through to mitigate conflicting interests consultation, training and awareness raising and to encourage greater sustainability and respect for the environment as well as the wishes of the local population.
reveal wider significance.
Over the past decade Slovenia has made significant improvements in the field of coastal zone management. The process of national reforms, including legislative and regulatory changes, characterised by the enhanced involvement of stakeholders in decision making processes, gained much impetus driven by the Coastal Area Management Programme (CAMP) during 2004-2007. Slovenia was the first Mediterranean country to ratify the ICZM Protocol. Intensive cooperation among the countries bordering the North Adriatic has contributed significantly to an improved coastal environment.
On 25 September 2009, Slovenia became the first of the Contracting Parties to the Barcelona convention to ratify the ICZM Protocol, stressing its clear commitment to the sustainable development of its coastal area. A significant element of this has been the enactment of legislative and regulatory reforms. Examples include the Slovenian Act on Physical Planning which is based on an integrated approach and public participation principles, which resulted in a new National Physical Plan for the Port of Koper (2010); or the Slovenian Water Act, based on an ecosystem approach and public participation under which the River Basin Management Plan for the Slovenian coastal region was amended (2011).
For the first anniversary of the ICZM Protocol’s ratification, Slovenia hosted the regional Coast Day celebration, open to all coastal states of the Mediterranean basin. Slovenia has taken part in many other activities within the framework of the Barcelona Convention and its protocols. One of the results of cooperation with the Regional Marine Pollution Emergency Response Centre for the Mediterranean Sea (REMPEC), has been the development of a Sub-Regional Contingency Plan for Prevention of, Preparedness for and Response to Major Marine Pollution Incidents in the Adriatic Sea. It has been prepared under the framework of the Trilateral Commission for the Protection of the Adriatic (members include Slovenia, Croatia, Italy). Over the past decade through Slovenian implementation of the Barcelona Convention, and in particular of IZCM activities, has contributed greatly to the concurrent implementation of some of the European Union’s legal structures, such as the EU Water Framework Directive and the EU Marine Strategy Directive for the sustainable development of European coasts and seas.
The initiative that has most significantly contributed to coastal management in Slovenia
was the CAMP project implemented during 2004-2007 by the Mediterranean Action
Plan (MAP), the Government of Slovenia and the municipalities of the South
Primorska region, under the guidance of the Priority Actions Programme Regional
Activity Centre (PAP/RAC, Split).
CAMP Slovenia assisted the South Primorska region which covers an area of 1,524 km2 (7.5% of the national territory) and accounts for 6% of the country’s total population (about 120,000 people). The region consists of three coastal municipalities (Koper, Izola and Piran), and five municipalities in its hinterland.
The Slovenian CAMP project was incorporated into a broader planning framework, based on the Act on Balanced Regional Development, which provides individual development programmes for each of the planning regions. The CAMP project was upgraded to become a more significant part of the Regional Development Programme 2007-2013, referring to sustainability, environmental protection, natural and cultural heritage, and spatial development. The CAMP process was based on broad participation, with the organisational structure of the project (steering committee, project committee) including partners from ministries and governmental agencies, municipalities, universities and civil society. The participation process was also organised with a view to to developing a common understanding of sustainability issues through the definition of sustainability indicators, a common vision and priority programmes.
The Slovenian CAMP focused on issues related to spatial planning, with the final document integrating the project’s results into a consistent programme, as part of the Regional Development Programme for South Primorska from 2007-2013. The programme was implemented at the national, regional and local levels. The CAMP project has contributed significantly to the mainstreaming of coastal zone management in Slovenia and has catalysed important reforms at all levels. Examples of this include:
a) The CAMP project has substantially enhanced inter-sectoral dialogue which is essential for an integrated approach to coastal and marine planning activities, both in the country itself and in the North Adriatic region. An example of this has been increased cooperation of stakeholders (,the private sector, NGOs and academia) in public discussions and planning procedures for future development of the coastal region.
b) The Permanent Commission for the Protection the Adriatic Sea and its Coastal Area (Slovenia, Italy, Croatia, Montenegro) placed the
reporting of ICZM activites and the region’s transboundary issues on their agenda; and
1. In 2008 Slovenia and Italy began dialog to use Strategic Environmental Impact Assessment procedures to guide the planning of a
new port and terminal infrastructure in the Bay of Trieste using ICZM principles.
2. Slovenia has recently drafted a proposal for new legislation for a financial mechanism for investments including public-private
partnerships. Currently, the law is under negotiation at the governmental level and should it be passed, would guarantee long-term
resources to support coastal zone management
With regards to the bio-physical indicators of improvement, the following can be noted:
- Enhanced quality of coastal waters, including bathing waters, after the construction of the Waste Water Treatment Plant inKoper (2008) and upgrading of the WWTP in Piran (2008). This ensured the successful rehabilitation of one of the largest pollution sources in the Adriatic. . Construction of sewerage systems and small waste water treatment plants in rural areas is also under way.
- Slovenia has signed a monitoring agreement with the MED POL Programme and provides periodical reports on its monitoring data. The Marine Biology Station of Piran monitors the quality of the coastal waters, and impacts of human activities on pollution on a monthly basis.
- In 2009, the Strunjan Landscape Park Public Institute was established, responsible for the management of this protected coastal area which covers around 5 km of the coastline (approx. 10% of the national coastline); Coastal municipalities have started the preparation of new spatial plans in accordance with the Concept of spatial development established during the CAMP project;
- Large-scale projects of urban renewal, in particular public areas (squares, parks, cultural heritage locations, and coastal walkways)were implemented in the coastal towns of Koper, Izola and Piran;
- The construction of a highway between Koper and Izola has commenced, which will relieve traffic on the coastal road and allow for the revitalisation and arrangement of coastal walkways around 4.5 km in length (approx. 10% of the national coastline).
- The Port of Koper has adopted a responsible attitude towards the environment and the local community through their “Living with the Port” initiative. In this regard, the Port applied to be registered with the EMAS (Eco-Management and Auditing Scheme) in 2009 and set up a monitoring system to assess levels of dust particles and noise – the results of which are made available in real time through the scheme’s website. In addition, the Port has further introduced new renewable energy sources (including solar energy and recovered waste energy), and has established a Technological Environmental Centre to manage the development and introduction of new environmental technologies.